Key concepts from 101
Linear perspective, atmospheric perspective, horizon line, vanishing point, organic lines, foreground, mid-ground and background.
This time we are going to apply these ideas/concepts to this architectural form of a modest country church. This is not my own photo.
You will need a regular sheet of letter size paper and a legal sheet (or 2 sheets of letter paper taped vertically) and soft, sharp pencil.
Please do not use a ruler and avoid an eraser until the end. You could spend the entire exercise erasing and becoming frustrated. Practice with your pencil until your lines are soft and easily corrected—without an eraser. Curl your hand so that you can use the outer/baby finger side to slide across the paper as a guide.
In this exercise we are going to use 2 point perspective where previously we used just a single vanishing point.
1.To create markers: Fold your larger sheet in half horizontally. Make a visible dot on each end of the horizontal line. These indicate the horizon and are your vanishing points. In the picture, the trees obscure the horizon.
2. Take your smaller sheet and fold in half horizontally, then again horizontally to divide the sheet in quarters. Do the same vertically to create a second set of quarter lines. There should be 16 rectangles dividing your sheet.
3. Place the smaller sheet vertically on top of the horizontally oriented, larger sheet. Centre vertically but align the bottom edges. Tape to hold in place if you like.
4. To create the first pencil line indicating the line of the church where front and side walls align:
Step 1: From the right bottom edge count one and a half spaces in and mark with a dot in the centre of the space. Step 2: Count 2 half spaces up and make a second mark.
Step 3. Make a line to create the vertical wall abutment which is closest to the eye (between the window and door).
5. Getting the perspective of the walls: Without using a ruler, draw a line from the bottom dot to the right hand vanishing point ( on the bottom layer of paper). Again, the top dot to the same vanishing point—you should have a long, narrow triangle. Do the same from the top and bottom dots to the left vanishing point.
6. Create your outside verticals: The left is about one and a half rectangles in and the right about 3/4 of that rectangle in. You should now have a box with slightly diagonal lines top and bottom but should have true vertical walls.
7. Roof: Make a dot in the centre of your page. From this point join with a line to the left outer wall and a second line to the centre wall. You should have a triangle. From the centre dot, extend your line to the right hand side vanishing point to determine the slope. For the top of the roof, count one and a quarter squares in and make a mark to join the roof to the top of the right hand wall. Join the 2 lower points to form the bottom edge of the roof.
Window and door: determine the height with small dots . Although they are actually centred on the building, the near wall portion should be slightly wider than the distant portion to allow for perspective. When adding any detail that requires perspective lines e.g. sills and lintels, use your vanishing points to determine the slope. Guessing could give you a line that looks askew.
8. Bell tower: Start with the vertical join which is slightly to the right of your centre line. The top is slightly higher than your first fold at the top of the page. Mark and joint with a vertical line. Extend upwards for the cross. The top of the cross should be on the same slope as the walls—use your left vanishing point.
9. Roof line slopes: From the ball, make a diagonal about 1/2 inch out on either side and about half way down. Notice that the tower is joined into the roof about 1/2 inch down and the top structure sits on a small “foundation.” Use the vanishing point on the right to determine the angle. Create the inner framework of the window openings and extend the roof seams of the tower from the window peek to the tower peek at the ball.
At this point you can take out a ruler and eraser to neaten things up—but you may like the way it looks drawn freehand. Be sure that all vertical lines are TRUE verticals and all lines that would be “horizontal” on the actual structure, go back to the vanishing points on a diagonal, even if they are just tiny window sill lines. This drawing will serve as your pattern.
Now that you have your church drawn (congratulations, this was not an easy exercise), continue to add the background and any details that you would like to add in, although that can happen as you work on your textile or fibre piece. Just remember the perspective rules: Objects and details are larger in the foreground than in the distance and atmospherics can create more depth to your work.
Steps outlined visually.